20. CIDER

Australia & New Zealand Homebrewing Forum

Help Support Australia & New Zealand Homebrewing Forum:

Status
Not open for further replies.

Lord Raja Goomba I

Prisoner of Sobriety
Joined
21/5/10
Messages
4,882
Reaction score
978
Location
Ferny Grove, Brisbane
20. CIDER
Introduction to Cider Guidelines
Cider is fermented apple juice. Perry is fermented pear juice. They are made primarily or entirely from the juice of apples or pears (but not both at once). The only adjunct permitted is a limited addition of sugar to achieve a suitable starting gravity. Note that honey is not a “sugar” for this purpose; a cider made with added honey must be entered either as an Other Cider or as a Melomel in the mead category. Other sugar sources that also add significant flavours(brown sugar, molasses) would also create an Other Cider.

Aroma and Flavour:

• Ciders and perries do not necessarily present overtly fruity aromas or flavours—in the same sense that a wine does not taste overtly of grapes. Drier styles of cider in particular develop more complex but less fruity characters. In fact, a simple “apple soda” or “wine cooler” character is not desirable in a cider or perry.
•Some styles of cider exhibit distinctly NON-fruity tastes or aromas, such as the “smoky bacon” undertones of a dry English cider.
•The sweetness (residual sugar, or RS) of a cider or perry may vary from absolutely dry (no RS) to as much as a sweet dessert wine (10% or more RS). In sweeter ciders, other components of taste—particularly acidity—must balance the sweetness. The level of sweetness must be specified in order to arrange flights of tastings and entries within flights. Tasting always proceeds from drier to sweeter. There are three categories of sweetness:
o Dry: below 0.9% residual sugar. This corresponds to a final specific gravity of under 1.002.
o Medium: in the range between dry and sweet (0.9% to 4% residual sugar, final gravity 1.002 to 1.012). Sometimes characterized as either ‘off-dry’ or ‘semi-sweet.’
o Sweet: above 4% residual sugar, roughly equivalent to a final gravity of over 1.012.
• If a cider is close to one of these boundaries, it should be identified by the sweetness style which best describes the overall impression it gives.
• Acidity is an essential element of cider and perry: it must be sufficient to give a clean, refreshing impression without being puckering. Acidity (from malic and in some cases lactic acids) must not be confused with acetification (from acetic acid—vinegar): the acrid aroma and tingling taste of acetification is a fault.
• Ciders and perries vary considerably in tannin. This affects both bitterness and astringency (see “Mouthfeel” below). If made from culinary or table fruit, tannins are typically low; nevertheless some tannin is desirable to balance the character. The character contributed by tannin should be mainly astringency rather than bitterness. An overt or forward bitterness is a fault (and is often due to processing techniques rather than fruit).

Appearance:
• Clarity may vary from good to brilliant. The lack of sparkling clarity is not a fault, but visible particles are undesirable. In some styles a “rustic” lack of brilliance is common. Perries are notoriously difficult to clear; as a result a slight haze is not a fault. However, a “sheen” in either cider or perry generally indicates the early stage of lactic contamination and is a distinct fault.
• Carbonation may vary from entirely still to a champagne level. No or little carbonation is termed still. A moderate carbonation level is termed petillant. Highly carbonated is termed sparkling. At the higher levels of carbonation,the “mousse” (head) may be retained for a short time. However, gushing, foaming, and difficult-to-manage heads are faults.

Mouthfeel:
• In general, cider and perry have a mouthfeel and fullness akin to a substantial white wine. The body is less than that of beers.
Full-sparkling ciders will be champagne-like.

Ingredients:
• The apple and pear varieties are intended to illustrate commonly used examples, not dictate requirements when making the style. In general, adjuncts are prohibited except where specifically allowed in particular styles, and then the entrant must state them. Common processing aids, and enzymes, are generally allowed as long as they are not detectable in the finished cider. Yeast used for cider/perry may be either “natural” (the yeast which occurs on the fruit itself and/or is retained in the milling and pressing equipment) or cultured yeast. Malo-lactic fermentation is allowed, either naturally occurring or with an added ML culture. Enzymes may be used for clarification of the juice prior to fermentation. Malic acid may be added to a low-acid juice to bring acidity up to a level considered safe for avoiding bacterial contamination and off-flavours (typically pH 3.8 or below). Entrant MUST state if malic acid was added. Sulfites may be added as needed for microbiological control. If used, the maximum accepted safe level for sulfites (200 mg/l) should be strictly observed; moreover, any excess sulfite that is detectable in the finished cider (a “burning match” character) is a serious fault.
• Sorbate may be added at bottling to stabilize the cider. However, any residual aroma/flavour from misuse or excessive use of sorbate (e.g., a “geranium” note) is a distinct fault.
• Carbonation may be either natural (by maintaining CO2 pressure through processing or by bottle-conditioning) oradded (by CO2 injection).

20.1 Common Cider [BJCP]
A common cider is made from culinary/table apples, with wild or crab apples often used for acidity/tannin balance.
Aroma/Flavour: Sweet or low-alcohol ciders may have apple aroma and flavour. Dry ciders will be more wine-like with some esters. Sugar and acidity should combine to give a refreshing character, neither cloying nor too austere. Medium to high acidity.
Appearance: Clear to brilliant, pale to medium gold in colour.
Mouthfeel: Medium body. Some tannin should be present for slight to moderate astringency, but little bitterness.
Overall Impression: Variable, but should be a medium, refreshing drink. Sweet ciders must not be cloying. Dry ciders must not be too
austere. An ideal cider serves well as a “session” drink, and suitably accompanies a wide variety of food.
Comments: Entrants MUST specify carbonation level (still, petillant, or sparkling). Entrants MUST specify sweetness (dry, medium, sweet).
Varieties: Common (Winesap, Macintosh, Golden Delicious, Braeburn, Jonathan), multi-use (Northern Spy, Russets, Baldwin), crabapples, any suitable wildings.
Vital Statistics:

.tg {border-collapse:collapse;border-spacing:0;border-color:#000000;}
.tg td{font-family:Arial, sans-serif;font-size:14px;padding:10px 5px;border-style:solid;border-width:1px;overflow:hidden;word-break:normal;border-color:#000000;color:#000000;background-color:#fff;}
.tg th{font-family:Arial, sans-serif;font-size:14px;font-weight:normal;padding:10px 5px;border-style:solid;border-width:1px;overflow:hidden;word-break:normal;border-color:#000000;color:#000000;background-color:#f38630;}
.tg .tg-9d65{font-weight:bold;background-color:#ffffff;color:#000000;vertical-align:top}
.tg .tg-pxng{background-color:#ffffff;color:#000000;vertical-align:top}








OG

FG
ABV


1045-1065
1000-1020
5-8%



20.2 English Cider [BJCP]
This includes the English “West Country” plus ciders inspired by that style. These ciders are made with bittersweet and bitter-sharp apple varieties cultivated specifically for cider making.
Aroma/Flavour: No overt apple character, but various flavours and esters that suggest apples. May have “smoky (bacon)” character from a combination of apple varieties and MLF. Some “Farmyard nose” may be present but must not dominate; mousiness is a serious fault. The common slight farmyard nose of an English West Country cider is the result of lactic acid bacteria, not a Brettanomyces contamination.
Appearance: Slightly cloudy to brilliant. Medium to deep gold colour.
Mouthfeel: Full. Moderate to high tannin apparent as astringency and some bitterness. Carbonation still to moderate, never high or gushing.
Overall Impression: Generally dry, full-bodied, austere.
Comments: Entrants MUST specify carbonation level (still or petillant). Entrants MUST specify sweetness (dry to medium). Entrants MAY specify variety of apple for a single varietal cider; if specified, varietal character will be expected.
Varieties: Kingston Black, Stoke Red, Dabinett, Foxwhelp, Yarlington Mill, various Jerseys, etc.
Vital Statistics:

.tg {border-collapse:collapse;border-spacing:0;border-color:#000000;}
.tg td{font-family:Arial, sans-serif;font-size:14px;padding:10px 5px;border-style:solid;border-width:1px;overflow:hidden;word-break:normal;border-color:#000000;color:#000000;background-color:#fff;}
.tg th{font-family:Arial, sans-serif;font-size:14px;font-weight:normal;padding:10px 5px;border-style:solid;border-width:1px;overflow:hidden;word-break:normal;border-color:#000000;color:#000000;background-color:#f38630;}
.tg .tg-9d65{font-weight:bold;background-color:#ffffff;color:#000000;vertical-align:top}
.tg .tg-pxng{background-color:#ffffff;color:#000000;vertical-align:top}








OG

FG
ABV


1050-1075
995-1010
6-9%



20.3 Other Cider
This is an open-ended style for perry or other ciders, which may include other adjuncts such that it does not fit any of the other styles. This includes the use of spices and/or other sweeteners. A cider with added honey may be entered here if the cider character remains dominant. Otherwise it should be entered as a cyser in the mead category.
Aroma/Flavour: The cider character must always be present, and must fit with adjuncts.
Appearance: Clear to brilliant. Colour should be that of a common cider unless adjuncts are expected to contribute colour.
Mouthfeel: Average body, may show tannic (astringent) or heavy body as determined by adjuncts.
Comments: Entrants MUST specify all major ingredients and adjuncts. Entrants MUST specify carbonation level (still, petillant, or sparkling). Entrants MUST specify sweetness (dry or medium).
Vital Statistics:

.tg {border-collapse:collapse;border-spacing:0;border-color:#000000;}
.tg td{font-family:Arial, sans-serif;font-size:14px;padding:10px 5px;border-style:solid;border-width:1px;overflow:hidden;word-break:normal;border-color:#000000;color:#000000;background-color:#fff;}
.tg th{font-family:Arial, sans-serif;font-size:14px;font-weight:normal;padding:10px 5px;border-style:solid;border-width:1px;overflow:hidden;word-break:normal;border-color:#000000;color:#000000;background-color:#f38630;}
.tg .tg-9d65{font-weight:bold;background-color:#ffffff;color:#000000;vertical-align:top}
.tg .tg-pxng{background-color:#ffffff;color:#000000;vertical-align:top}








OG

FG
ABV


1045-1100
995-1020
5-12%




Style guidelines for Perry (in the interim, included in 20.3 Other Cider style)
Common perry is made from culinary/table fruit. Traditional perry is made from pears grown specifically for that purpose rather than for eating or cooking. Many “perry pears” are nearly inedible.
Aroma/Flavour: There is a pear character, but not obviously fruity. It tends toward that of a young white wine. No bitterness.
Appearance: Slightly cloudy to clear. Generally quite pale.
Mouthfeel: Relatively full, low to moderate tannin apparent as astringency.
Overall Impression: Mild. Medium to medium-sweet. Still to lightly sparkling. Only very slight acetification is acceptable. Mousiness, ropy/oily characters are serious faults.
Comments: Entrants MUST specify carbonation level (still, petillant, or sparkling). Entrants MUST specify sweetness (medium or sweet).
Vital Statistics:

.tg {border-collapse:collapse;border-spacing:0;border-color:#000000;}
.tg td{font-family:Arial, sans-serif;font-size:14px;padding:10px 5px;border-style:solid;border-width:1px;overflow:hidden;word-break:normal;border-color:#000000;color:#000000;background-color:#fff;}
.tg th{font-family:Arial, sans-serif;font-size:14px;font-weight:normal;padding:10px 5px;border-style:solid;border-width:1px;overflow:hidden;word-break:normal;border-color:#000000;color:#000000;background-color:#f38630;}
.tg .tg-9d65{font-weight:bold;background-color:#ffffff;color:#000000;vertical-align:top}
.tg .tg-pxng{background-color:#ffffff;color:#000000;vertical-align:top}








OG

FG
ABV


1050-1065
1000-1020
5-7%
 
Status
Not open for further replies.

Latest posts

Top